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China Map 1796 Sir John Barrow A Chart on Merchant's Projection


18th century chart of ChinaJohn Barror chart of China 1796
China Sea Chart 1796
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China Map 1796 Sir John Barrow A Chart on Merchant's Projection containing the track and soundings of the Lion, the Hindoostan and Tenders from TURON-BAY in COCHIN-CHINA to the mouth of the Pei-Ho River in the Gulph of the Pe-Tche-Lee or Pekin, by J Barrow, published 12th April 1796 by George Nico.

This chart detailed George Macartney's travels to China. Macartney was Britain's first envoy to China, and was tasked with convincing Emperor Qianlong to ease restrictions on trade between Great Britain and China by allowing the British to have a permanent embassy in the country. The chart extends from Turon Bay (present day Da Nang, Vietnam) up the coast of eastern Asia to the Gulph of Leao-Tung in the Whang-Hai or Yellow Sea (the Gulf of Bohai in the Yellow Sea). The course set by the Lion, Hindostan, and Tenders is depicted along with soundings, sea bottom classifications, temperature and barometric readings, dates, and assorted notes:
'Lion and Tenders parted from the Hindostan in the fog'.
China is divided into several provinces, and many towns and cities are named, including Beijing, referred to as Pekin(g) sic.

Extensive sections of the Great Wall of China are depicted south of and rivers are accompanied by notes on their courses and sources. Taiwan is depicted with incomplete borders to the east of the ships' track.
Engraved by B. Baker and published on April, 12, 1796 by George Nicol.

Condition: Good imprint, folding copy, minor marginal repairs, later hand colouring.

Title: An antique chart of North East China 1796
Medium: Hand coloured engraving. Image Size: 710 x 495mm, 28 x 19.5 " approx.
Order No. 3008 Price: SOLD Paper Size: 760 x 545mm, 30 x 21.5" approx.
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Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet, FRS, FRGS (19 June 1764 – 23 November 1848)

Barrow was born the son of Roger Barrow in the village of Dragley Beck, in the parish of Ulverston, then in Lancashire, now in Cumbria. He started in life as superintending clerk of an iron foundry at Liverpool and afterwards, in his twenties, taught mathematics at a private school in Greenwich. Through the interest of Sir George Leonard Staunton, whose son he taught mathematics, he was attached on the first British embassy to China from 1792–94 as comptroller of the household to Lord Macartney. He soon acquired a good knowledge of the Chinese language, on which he subsequently contributed interesting articles to the Quarterly Review; and the account of the embassy published by Sir George Staunton records many of Barrow's valuable contributions to literature and science connected with China. Although Barrow ceased to be officially connected with Chinese affairs after the return of the embassy in 1794, he always took much interest in them, and on critical occasions was frequently consulted by the British government.

In 1797 he accompanied Lord Macartney, as private secretary, in his important and delicate mission to settle the government of the newly acquired colony of the Cape of Good Hope. Barrow was entrusted with the task of reconciling the Boer settlers and the native Black population and of reporting on the country in the interior. On his return from his journey, in the course of which he visited all parts of the colony, he was appointed auditor-general of public accounts. He now decided to settle in South Africa, married, and in 1800 bought a house in Cape Town. However the surrender of the colony at the peace of Amiens (1802) upset this plan.

Barrow returned to England in 1804 and was appointed Second Secretary to the Admiralty by Viscount Melville, a post which he held for forty years, (apart from a short period in 1806-07 when there was a Whig government in power). When Lord Grey took office as Prime Minister in 1830 Barrow was especially requested to remain in his post, starting the principle that senior civil servants stay in office on change of government and serve in a non-partisan manner. Indeed, it was during his occupancy of the post that it was renamed Permanent Secretary.[citation needed] Barrow enjoyed the esteem and confidence of all the eleven chief lords who successively presided at the Admiralty board during that period, and more especially of King William IV while lord high admiral, who honoured him with tokens of his personal regard.

Barrow married Anna Maria Truter (1777–1857) in South Africa on 26 August 1799. A botanical artist from the Cape, she bore him four sons and two daughters, one of whom, Johanna, married Robert Batty

During his travels through South Africa, Barrow compiled copious notes and sketches of the countryside he was traversing. The outcome of his journeys was a map which, despite its numerous errors, was the first published modern map of the southern parts of the Cape Colony.William John Burchell (1781–1863) was particularly scathing "As to the miserable thing called a map, which has been prefixed to Mr. Barrow’s quarto, I perfectly agree with Professor Lichtenstein, that it is so defective that it can seldom be found of any use." In his position at the Admiralty, Barrow was a great promoter of Arctic voyages of discovery, including those of John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross, and John Franklin. The Barrow Strait in the Canadian Arctic as well as Point Barrow and the city of Barrow in Alaska are named after him. He is reputed to have been the initial proposer of St Helena as the new place of exile for Napoleon Bonaparte following the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

Barrow was a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1821 received the degree of LL.D from the University of Edinburgh. A baronetcy was conferred on him by Sir Robert Peel in 1835.He was also a member of the Raleigh Club, a forerunner of the Royal Geographical Society. Barrow retired from public life in 1845 and devoted himself to writing a history of the modern Arctic voyages of discovery (1846), as well as his autobiography, published in 1847. He died suddenly on 23 November 1848. The Sir John Barrow monument on Hoad Hill overlooking his home town of Ulverston was built in his honour (though it is more commonly called Hoad Monument)

18th century chart of North East China

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